When the religious songs on Radio Sharia suddenly cut out, Ghulam Gul looked out of the window. Moments later the airport in his hometown, Jalalabad, went up in flames. "We stood on the roof and watched the airport burn all night," he said.
As he watched the first wave of US and British attacks on Afghanistan on Sunday night, Mr Gul, a 22-year-old taxi driver, felt an overwhelming sense of relief. Days earlier Taliban religious police had beaten him because his beard was too short. Now the regime's days were numbered.
Two days later he left the city, crossed illegally into Pakistan and shaved his beard in defiance. Mr Gul is one of hundreds of refugees who have poured out of Afghanistan since the attacks began.